1. Current international trade status of China's carbon fiber industry
China began to develop CFRP sports equipment in the early 1980s.
The CFRP badminton racket developed by Harbin FRP research institute in 1983 was successfully developed in 1987.
In the mid-1980s, due to China's reform and opening-up policy and low labor cost, Taiwan gradually transferred the labor-intensive and heavily polluted CFRP sports equipment manufacturing industry to the coastal areas of the mainland.
For example, 80 per cent of Taiwan's golf clubs, 40.50 per cent of its tennis rackets and badminton rackets, and more than 60 per cent of its bike rack manufacturing have moved to shenzhen, dongguan, fuzhou and xiamen.
Some developed countries have also transferred the sports equipment manufacturing industry to China.
South Korea, for example, has shifted much of its CFRP fishing rod manufacturing to places like tianjin, weihai and ningbo in China.
According to statistics, in 2002, domestic CFRP fishing rods, golf clubs, tennis rackets and bicycles respectively accounted for 60%, 60%, 75% and 65% of the output of similar products in the world. These CFRP sports and leisure products consumed about 16 percent of the world's total CF consumption in that year.
However, since the international CFRP sports and leisure products are already saturated, the products in this field will be basically stable in the future, with annual growth rate around 1%.
Launching objects into space requires a great deal of thrust, and the reduction of weight will bring great benefits. In addition, the temperature of space is changing sharply, which requires the materials to be heat resistant, cold resistant and stable in size. Carbon fiber reinforced composite is an ideal material.
Therefore, it has been applied to the main structure, antenna, solar cell panel and space shuttle of satellite.
Carbon fiber and its composite materials have been developed as indispensable materials because they are mainly concerned with material properties in aerospace, rather than the cost of materials.
As for the new generation of helicopters, nearly all of the rotating blades and fuselage are made of carbon-fibre reinforced plastics.
With the improvement of the performance of carbon fiber reinforced plastics, its application in the aviation field, especially in large civil aircraft, will be increasing day by day.
Because carbon fiber reinforced composite materials have great application space in the military, carbon fiber raw silk has been used as a military resource, and its technology introduction and trade in goods are also restricted by the import and export of carbon fiber industrial developed countries.
According to the existing data analysis, in 2006, the total export volume of carbon fiber products was 6,039,1343 us dollars, and the total import volume was 3,015,93.12 us dollars.
However, from the unit price and amount, we can see that the import and export pattern of China's carbon fiber products is due to the limitation in quantity. The unit price of import is higher than the unit price of export, and the amount of import is far less than that of export.
This illustrates the country advanced technology of carbon fiber on the one hand to our country imported carbon fiber products limited, on the other hand shows that our country's trade deficit is carbon fiber products of processing, using China's cheap labor and pollution to the environment of low cost price will be carbon fiber products of the production in China, with a large number of factory pattern complete carbon fiber products.
According to the theory of factor endowment, the import and export of carbon fiber products in China is still labor-intensive.
In recent years, China's carbon fiber market has developed rapidly, and it is expected to reach 1200t-1500t/a this year. Most of the carbon fiber market is occupied by Japanese, Taiwanese and Korean products.
In addition, Japan's three raw silk strands have been imported into China, and dongbang is also trying to find a channel for the input, which is undoubtedly an opportunity for carbon fiber manufacturers who have not yet qualified domestic raw silk, because the price is lower than the national product, and the performance and quality are good.
However, it is also a severe challenge for the raw silk manufacturers and the enterprises that are about to introduce the raw silk production line, forcing them to continuously improve the product quality, expand the production scale and reduce the cost, otherwise there will be certain risks, unless they digest the raw silk and develop the downstream products themselves.
2. Reflections on China's carbon fiber import and export trade
Carbon fiber products, like most of China's labor - output products, exist only in foreign factories.
As lang xianping said, "in fact, in our manufacturing process, we destroy our environment, waste our resources, and exploit our labor."
Carbon fiber has been dubbed a high-tech product, but in terms of mastering the field of technology, China's deficit is actually paid for by low labor, resource and environmental costs. And the most basic thing to change this situation is to speed up the technical development of China's carbon fiber products and the development of high performance carbon fiber precursor.
According to porter's theory of competitive advantage, the competitive advantage of a country or its specific industry is mainly reflected in the core competitiveness of a country or enterprise based on comparative advantage.
However, a simple comparative advantage cannot form a competitive advantage. In the international competition, several kinds of competitive advantages are monopolistic resources and technologies, and innovation ability is the key to competitive advantage.
However, the overall extensive economic growth pattern has not changed fundamentally, and the ability of independent innovation is still relatively low. The international competitiveness is mainly reflected in labor-intensive import and export products dominated by the low cost of human resources.
Therefore, facing the protection after the chaotic and heated international competition in the market, we should play in the original on the basis of comparative advantage, through innovation to enhance the competitive advantage, optimize the industrial structure, the potential comparative advantage into competitive advantage in international market, can we truly achieve their international competitiveness of ascension, to better cope with the current new situation.
Porter's theory of competitive advantage points out that in the process of the formation of a country's international competitiveness, a country's factor endowment, demand status, related industries or auxiliary industries, corporate strategy, structure and competition, etc. play a role in promoting or hindering the formation of a country's competitive advantage.
Therefore, the achievement of a country's competitive advantage is ultimately realized by the rational allocation of resources and the improvement of industrial structure. Therefore, we can grasp the competitive advantage from the overall industrial layout of China.
First, we need to integrate resources and pursue intensive development. China's sustained rapid growth is basically a simple way of growth that is extensive and extensive in scale, which is quite different from the intensive growth of efficiency, quality and environmental protection advocated by international competitiveness. Therefore, we should integrate resources to avoid low-level redundant construction and make the economy run at an efficient level. We will encourage powerful enterprises to "go out" and "grab the cake" in the international market, so as to enhance their competitiveness in the competition.
Secondly, we should focus on regional economy and adopt industrial cluster development model. Those industries with strong product correlation and long value chain are integrated to form regional industrial clusters. Through technology spillover and resource sharing inside the cluster, the cost is reduced and the core competitiveness is formed.
Finally, actively guide and strengthen the ability of independent innovation. In international trade, despite the spillover of technology and the effect of "Learn by Doing", we still need to emphasize the development of the independent innovation capability of new and high technologies, which is the main reason for China's current lack of international competitiveness. We can develop our own country's competitive strategic industries in the future through government policy guidance and industrialization of the achievements of universities and research institutions.
In terms of technology, the basic factors restricting the development of China's basic carbon fiber are poor quality of raw silk and no high-precision carbonizing device. The major scientific and technological breakthrough project or "863" plan of the 12th five-year plan of China should be closely focused on this key point while supporting the consideration of auxiliary materials.
In addition, how to deal with the relationship between large fiber bundles and small fiber bundles is also a matter of great concern to the Chinese industry.
Large fiber bundle carbon fiber is undoubtedly one of the development directions in the future.
However, considering that China is still in the early stage of development, more than 95% of the market is still dependent on the small fiber bundles below 24K, especially the 100 percent of the carbon fibers urgently needed by the military industry.
Internationally, at present, the market of small fiber bundles is still dominant, and the world's largest demand for T300 class carbon fibers is rapidly transitioning to the performance level of T700.
For civil buildings and sports goods T700 carbon fiber has quite a few use 12 k type products, and the intensity of large tow carbon fiber index 4.9 Gpa is difficult to achieve, and the performance coefficient of the discrete tow than small to big, it is decided to some high-tech and military and security is a matter of life and long life in the field of application field, still need small tow carbon fiber.
Some important industrial areas, such as civil buildings, can also use large fiber bundles, but the number of reinforcement layers is more than the same performance grade of small fiber bundles in order to achieve the same level of reinforcement, thus offsetting its low price advantage.
For this reason, the small fiber bundle carbon fiber will still have its strong vitality for a considerable period in the future.
As mentioned above, carbon fiber products are the output of labor-intensive products. To change this situation, we must increase the experimental research.
At present, China's large fiber bundle carbon fiber should focus on the solution of its raw silk localization and market development.